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Computer, Telephony & Electronics
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H.323 is a standard approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 1996 to promote compatibility in videoconference transmissions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. H.323 was
originally promoted as a way to provide consistency in audio, video and data packet transmissions in the event that a local area network (LAN) did not provide quality of service (QoS). Although it was doubtful at first whether manufacturers would adopt H.323, it is now considered to be the standard for interoperability in audio, video and data transmissions as well as Internet phone and voice-over-IP (VoIP) because it addresses call control and management for both point-to-point and multipoint conferences as well as gateway administration of media traffic, bandwidth and user participation. H.323, which describes how multimedia communications occur between
terminals, network equipment and services, is part of a larger group of ITU recommendations for multi-media interoperability called H.3x. The latest of these recommendations, H.248, is a recommendation to provide a single standard for the control of gateway devices in multi-media packet transmissions to allow calls to connect from a LAN to a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), as well as to other standards-based terminals. This recommendation was announced in August 2000, by the ITU-TU Study Group 16 and the Megaco Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and subsequently approved.
1. Originally used to describe a computer enthusiast who pushed a system to its highest performance through clever programming. More commonly it is becoming synonymous with 'cracker' which is used to describe people who break into secured computer systems. Most often used to indicate computer bad guys.
2. An expert programmer who likes to spend a lot of time figuring out the finer details of computer systems or networks, as opposed to those who learn only the minimum necessary. See also cracker. Hackers usually try to work through the Internet because they are not seen, heard and not generally noticed until damage is done.
Alternating transmission of data or voice, though generally data, in each direction on a line. See duplex.
A small portable computer; generally it is self contained. Also see PDA.
1. A number or token that lets a program access a resource. Programs often receive a handle in response to a request for a resource, and then they use the handle when they need to access the resource. When the program uses the handle, the value of the handle tells the system which resource, from the pool of resources maintained by the system, to use.
2. A nickname used in online communications. A carry over from Citizens Band radio days. A screen name.
The exchange of predetermined signals between two hardware devices establishing a connection; an example is a modem and a computer or two modems. Usually part of a communications protocol. Usually one makes a request and the other grants it or instructs it to wait for a while and then ask again.
1. An unexpected halt of a computer, usually while running an application program. A hung machine is characterized by a total lack of response from the mouse and keyboard. The user can almost never effect a recovery except by turning the computer off and restarting it.
2. In the construction "hang off", to attach a peripheral device to a computer via a cable. "I'm going to hang another hard drive off my home box."
hard disk drive
The main storage device located inside most computers. These are generally not removable except by a trained technical person. Sizes of current generation hard disk drives range from about 8GB to 80GB. Obviously, there are larger and there are smaller drives available but these are typical sizes you could find in an over-the-counter computer. Just a few years ago, the average hard disk drive size was 21MB. The most often used interfaces are ATA (IDE or EIDE) and SCSI. Between the two of those, they account for 98% of the drives. The other 2% are unusual interfaces that are for specialty machines. There are many manufacturers worldwide but some of the major ones in the US are Seagate, Maxtor, Quantum and Western Digital. Here are some of the many disk drive and other vendors that you can reach through us for drivers and support.
A slang term suggesting a testing period of an application or the shoring up of a network or operating system. For many IT directors, the term "lean and mean" is the same thing. Most station operating systems and server operating systems have programs and options that allow for activities that are somewhat insecure to take place. The removal or disabling of those, as well as the activation of firewalls, anti-virus, anti-spy and anti-adware software is also part of the process. Generally speaking, it is the addition of security and the removal of possible points of vulnerability, as well as a reasonable amount of prudent testing. It always includes the addition of the latest upgrades and updates (patches), documenting procedures (the do's and don'ts for users), refining processes and seasoning the software to various options. Often times it also entails optimization of those options.
The visible, tangible, touchable parts of a computer system, such as the circuit boards, chassis, enclosures, peripherals, cables, etc. It does not include data or computer programs. It does, however, include software in ROMS, PROMS and EPROMS as those devices are considered hardware. Here are some of the many hardware vendors that you can reach through us for drivers and support.
1. In software, a function or capability that is hardcoded (programmed) into a system. Generally, anything that can not be modified or customized.
2. In hardware, a connection that does not have a plug; it is directly connected, usually soldered to a board, switch or power supply.
A harmonic is a signal or wave whose frequency is an integral (whole-number) multiple of the frequency of some reference signal or wave. The term can also refer to the ratio of the frequency of such a signal or wave to the frequency of the reference signal or wave. Let f represent the main, or fundamental, frequency of an alternating current (AC) signal, electromagnetic field, or sound wave. This frequency, usually expressed in hertz, is the frequency at which most of the energy is contained, or at which the signal is defined to occur. If the signal is displayed on an oscilloscope, the waveform will appear to repeat at a rate corresponding to f Hz. For a signal whose fundamental frequency is f, the second harmonic has a frequency 2f, the third harmonic has a frequency of 3f, and so on. Let w represent the wavelength of the signal or wave in a specified medium. The second harmonic has a wavelength of w/2, the third harmonic has a wavelength of w/3, and so on. Signals occurring at frequencies of 2f, 4f, 6f, etc. are called even harmonics; the signals at frequencies of 3f, 5f, 7f, etc. are called odd harmonics. A signal can, in theory, have infinitely many harmonics. Nearly all signals contain energy at harmonic frequencies, in addition to the energy at the fundamental frequency. If all the energy in a signal is contained at the fundamental frequency, then that signal is a perfect sine wave. If the signal is not a perfect sine wave, then some energy is contained in the harmonics. Some waveforms contain large amounts of energy at harmonic frequencies. Examples are square waves, sawtooth waves, and triangular waves. In wireless communications and broadcasting, transmitters are designed so they emit a minimum of energy at harmonic frequencies. Normally, a wireless device is intended for use at only one frequency. Signal output at harmonic frequencies can cause interference to other communications or broadcasting. For example, a broadcast signal at 90.5 MHz (in the standard FM band) would have a second harmonic at 181 MHz, a third harmonic at 271.5 MHz, a fourth harmonic at 362 MHz, and so on. Some or all of these harmonic signals could, if strong, disrupt activities in other wireless services.
An early leader in the modem business; now out of business.
An acronym for Host Bus Adaptor, a technology to usually offload a specific job to a subordinate device.
An acronym for High level Data Link Control, a communications network transmission protocol used at the data link layer, which is layer 2 of the OSI seven layer model for data communications. The HDLC protocol secures information in a data frame that allows devices to control data flow and correct errors. HDLC is an ISO standard developed from the Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) standard proposed by IBM in the 1970's. For any HDLC communications session, one station is designated primary and the other secondary. A session can use one of the three following connection situations which determine how the primary and secondary stations interact.
Asynchronous balanced: Both stations send and receive over its part of a duplex line. This mode is used for X.25 packet switching networks.
Asynchronous: The secondary station can initiate a message.
Normal unbalanced: The secondary station responds only to the primary station. Also please see DLC.
An acronym for High Definition Multimedia Interface, is the consumer electronic industry's first connection capable of transmitting uncompressed digital audio/video signals. Components featuring HDMI can transmit both digital audio and video over one convenient cable, replacing the tangled mess that resides behind many home theater components. HDMI also offers improved quality over traditional analog connections thanks to all digital transmission. Digital sources like DVDs and HDTV programming can now be transferred digitally from source to display without analog conversions that can degrade the original signal. Unlike the HDMI interface, DVI only handles digital video. Through the use of an adapter, a DVI device can be connected to an HDMI device, but only video content can be transmitted. The audio signal would have to be transmitted through other methods such as analog RCA outputs or an optical digital output. Please see the site for HTTP://WWW.HDMI.ORG.
An acronym for Handheld Device Markup Language. It is used to format content for Web-enabled mobile phones. It is often compared to WML though HDML is phone.com's (formerly known as Unwired Planet) proprietary language, which can only be viewed on mobile phones that use phone.com browsers. The main differences are that WML can use a scripting language, called WMLScript and HDML has no scripting of any kind. WML is XML based and HDML is not. HDML came before the WAP standard was created. It uses phone.com's Handheld Device Transport Protocol (HDTP), instead of WAP. Phones access HDML sites the following way:
Once the URL is typed into the phone, the phone sends the request to phone.com's UP.Link gateway. The gateway sends a HTTP request to the Web server. The Web servers returns the page via HTTP back to the phone.com UP.Link gateway. The gateway sends the data via HDTP to the wireless carrier's network and down to the phone. HDML and the phone.com gateway are most popular throughout North America. In Europe, WML and the Nokia WAP gateway and browser are the emerging standard. However, some versions of phone.com browsers do interpret basic WML. To serve HDML pages, administrators must add the text/x-hdml mime type to their Web servers. More information is available at, as you might guess, HTTP://WWW.PHONE.COM.
Short for High Speed Digital Subscriber Line, a new technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines (POTS). The terms SDSL, SLDSL and just DSL are often used as the same term. SDSL supports data rates up to 3 Mbps. SDSL works by sending digital pulses in the high-frequency area of telephone wires. Since these high frequencies are not used by normal voice communications, SDSL can operate simultaneously with voice connections over the same wires. SDSL requires a special SDSL modem. SDSL is called symmetric because it supports the same data rates for upstream and downstream traffic. A similar technology that supports different data rates for upstream and downstream data is called asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL). HDSL and SDSL are often used interchangably because they are both symmetrical. However, speeds are considerably different. Unlike ADSL, High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) is a symmetric method of transmitting data at rates up to 1.5 Mbps in both directions. Because of the symmetric properties, the highest transmission rates can only be supported at lengths of 15,000 foot distances of two or more twisted pair lines. Because of these distance requirements, HDSL is an ideal service for campus environments and digital local loops. ADSL is more popular in North America, whereas SDSL is being developed primarily in Europe. See XDSL, SDSL, ADSL, SLDSL and DSL.
An acronym for Handheld Device Transport Protocol. Developed by HTTP://WWW.PHONE.COM for use in wireless applications. See HDML.
An acronym for High Definition TeleVision. As of November 2004, there are two popular HDTV formats in use. One is termed 1080i, and the other is known as 720p. However, unlike VHS and Beta of the 70s, you don't have to choose one or the other. All digital projectors and digital HDTVs accept and automatically process both formats. A few of the national and international networks such as Fox, ESPN, ABC and a few others broadcast in 720p, while other networks including NBC, CBS, HDNet and many others use 1080i. Both formats generate and process wonderful video pictures, considerably advanced from conventional television. Projection or HDTV will automatically switch from 1080i to 720p without any intervention from you. So what is the real difference between these amazingly clear and detailed widescreen pictures?
Both formats, 720P and 1080i feature the same widescreen 16:9 aspect ratio that defines HDTV. However, the 1080i format has 1080 lines for each frame of video, whereas the 720p format has 720 lines. Is a large number better? Many people feel 1080i is preferred because it has more scanlines, yielding a capability of more picture detail. Because there is so much digital data in the 1080 line format, each frame must be isolated into even and odd lines and broadcast a half frame at a time in interlaced format, exactly as is the conventional TV broadcast system. Obviously, this presents some of the difficulties plaguing the conventional industry, however they are smaller and less noticeable since there are so many scanlines. The alternative HDTV format is 720 lines progressive (the "p" in 720p) scan, or 720p. Though it has fewer lines, the native progressive scan format eliminates motion irregularities that are inherent in interlacing. Often they are seen as momentary blips or wiggle. Therefore for broadcasts of events with much motion such as sporting events, a much more stable picture is achieved from 720p than is from 1080i. By contrast, broadcasts of events with little motion, 1080i is the standard of choice, rendering considerably more picture detail. Both excellent HDTV formats. One is not better than the other; they are just each better with particular types of viewing events. Both are noticeably superior to the 480 line conventional format. Since the decisions of what is being presented is done for you, you get the best of both worlds. Also see SDTV and EDTV.
1. The part of a disk drive that reads data from the magnetic surface and writes to it.
2. The section of a program that has all of the creation and modification information.
1. In programming, an area of memory reserved for data that is created at runtime, that is, when the program actually executes. In contrast, the stack is an area of memory used for data whose size can be determined when the program is compiled.
2. A special type of binary tree in which the value of each node is greater than the values of its leaves. A heap sort algorithm works by first organizing a list of data into a heap.
A heatsink is a device that is attached to a semi-conductor device to keep it from overheating by absorbing its generated heat and dissipating it into the air. The most common devices to use heat sinks are power transistors, voltage regulators and microprocessors. Generally, a microprocessor's temperature should not
run in excess of 50-55 degrees Celsius (roughly 120-130 degrees Fahrenheit) while under a full load. In Intel based computers, the heatsink is positioned either on top of the microprocessor (in computers with a ZIF socket) or on the side of it (in some of the later Pentiums in which the microprocessor fits into a Slot 1 interface). The heatsink may be held in place on the microprocessor
by a clip. To ensure that the heatsink can absorb as much heat as is possible, thermal grease is used to create a heat transferring seal between the two devices. When you buy a computer or a separate microprocessor, the heatsink
comes with it. Most heatsinks are aluminum and have "fins" that extend from the base. The fins allow much more space to be exposed to "flowing" air in order to carry away the heat as quickly as possible. There are two type of heatsinks, active and passive. An active heatsink is one that comes with a fan, sometimes called a heatsink/fan combo (HSF). A passive heatsink is one that comes without a fan.
The classic first demonstration program used when teaching a new language. The goal of a "Hello World!" program is simply to print the words "Hello World!" to the screen. See also BASIC, C, Java, and Perl.
The universal ISP keyword that provides members with online and offline help. You can never have too much of it; never turn it down if offered.
The henry (abreviated H) is the Standard International (SI) unit of inductance. Reduced to base SI units, one henry is the equivalent of one kilogram meter squared per second squared per ampere squared (kg m2 s-2 A-2).
In a circuit where the current is changing at a constant rate of one ampere per second (A/s), an inductance of 1 H results in the generation of one volt (1 V) of potential difference across an inductor. More rapid current changes produce much greater surges of electromotive force (EMF). This is the principle by which a spark coil generates a high and dangerous voltage. The henry is a large unit of inductance. In audio frequency (AF) and radio frequency (RF) applications, units of millihenrys (mH), where 1 mH = 10-3 H, and microhenrys (µH), where 1 µH = 10-6 H, are common. Occasionally, the filter choke in a power supply, or a field coil designed to produce a large voltage upon release of its stored magnetic energy, will be found whose value can be expressed in henrys. In very high frequency (VHF), ultra high frequency (UHF), and microwave devices and systems, units of nanohenrys (nH), where 1 nH = 10-9 H, and picohenrys (pH), where 1 pH = 10-12 H, are used.
1. Indicates the frequency (number of cycles per second) of alternating current such as ringing voltage or Touch Tone signals. Abbreviated hz. Often seen as a measure of speed of CPUs, such as 500 mhz.
2. The biggie in the rental car business. Check out the Hertz site at HTTP://WWW.HERTZ.COM. It is a very good example of an Ecommerce site in multiple languages.
3. The feeling your hand and arm have after touching a hot AC line, though spelled differently.
As it relates to computers and computer science, the process of logical selection. In programming, relating to or using any problem resolving technique in which the most appropriate solution of many deduced by various methods is chosen at successive stages of a program by logical selection protocol, for eventual use in the next step of the program. It is usually a process of elimination and compromise by using "what If" theory. This is also common in virus detection software to determine of a pattern that has been targeted and somewhat qualified, is really a virus or if it is something that looks like a virus.
HEX or hexadecimal
Refers to the base-16 number system, which consists of 16 unique symbols: the numbers 0 to 9 and the letters A to F. For example, the decimal number 15 is represented as F in the hexadecimal numbering system. The hexadecimal system is useful because it can represent every byte (8 bits) as two consecutive hexadecimal digits. It is easier for humans to read hexadecimal numbers than binary numbers. It is often termed as HEX. Because of the more efficient hardware implications of using HEX over octal, it has practically antiquated that representation. To convert a value from hexadecimal to binary, you merely translate each hexadecimal digit into its 4-bit binary equivalent. Hexadecimal numbers have either and 0x prefix or an h suffix. For example, the hexadecimal number "0x3F7A" translates to the following binary number: 0011 1111 0111 1010. For a demonstration of hexadecimal number conversion, try our Base 2/10/16 number converter. If you think that you think in hex, you might also want to see our Hexadecimal Time Display Calculator.
The one voltage state in a logic circuit. Though it may vary in actual positive voltage, it is considered a logical one. In TTL circuits, it is 2.4 volts and above. In CMOS designs, it is 3.2 volts and above. The supply voltage is assumed to be 5 volts.
high level format
A term associated with hard disk drives and the Windows/DOS architecture. All disk drives must be formatted to allow data to be stored and retrieved. Most operating systems use the native format (low level format) of the drive to deal with those functions since the native function format gives the drive the optimum speed and space within the parameters of the design. DOS and Windows reformat the drive into recognizable partitions that communicate with the drive's native condition. Some experts say that there is a small speed and size degradation because of this; others say the reliability of the drive is much higher because of it. I tend to agree with the reliability. For a detailed explanation of drive mechanics and drive architecture, we suggest that you visit the following locations:
How Stuff Works
high level language
A programming language such as C, FORTRAN, or Pascal that enables a programmer to write programs that are more or less independent of a particular type of computer or platform. Such languages are considered high-level because they are closer to human languages and further from machine languages. Instructions are generally given in an English-like format. In contrast, assembly languages are considered low-level because they are very close to machine languages. The main advantage of high-level languages over low-level languages is that they are easier to read, write, and maintain. Creation of programs happens much faster in high-level languages. Ultimately, programs written in a high-level language must be translated into machine language by a compiler or interpreter. The first high-level programming languages were designed in the 1950s. Now there are dozens of different languages, including Ada, Algol, BASIC, Visual Basic, COBOL, C, C++, FORTRAN, LISP, Pascal, and Prolog.
To drag the mouse over text. Hold down the left mouse button, and drag the mouse over the text. When it changes color, it's highlighted and ready to be changed.
The name given to the proposed European standard for WLAN operation. See IEEE 802.11.
1. A single user accessing a single file from a web server. That file can be a graphic, a page of text or access to a database. A unit of measure of load on the server often used erroneously to evaluate the popularity of a web site. A visit to a web page, a page view or the use of a file on the Internet. See eyeballs.
2. A positive return on a search in a database or by way of a search engine on the Internet. This is the result of a search.
Ubiquitous online disputes that never end. Common holy wars are fought over Macintosh vs. Windows, UNIX vs. Windows NT, and everyone vs. Microsoft, as well as over societal issues such as abortion, gun control, and pornography. See also flame war.
1. A web page that is topically the main source of information about a particular person, group, or concept. Many people on the web create home pages about themselves for fun; these are also known as vanity pages.
2. The 'front screen', the first page of a collection of web pages particular to the site of one person or business. For example, HTTP://WWW.AOL.COM is the home page for America Online.
hook switch flash
Or switch hook flash; a telephony term. A signal originated by momentarily depressing the switch hook on a single line phone; it accomplishes the same pause as hitting so equipped phones with a flash button. Typically used for accessing CO or PABX features.
1. A row on spreadsheet software.
2. The lines on a monitor or TV that go across. The opposite is vertical.
3. In marketing, a flat market, with only one customer. Often products sold to the military are horizontal markets.
The science of time.
A slang term to express the general power and speed of a microprocessor.
To be totally destroyed or otherwise unusable, as in "my hard drive is hosed" or "the network is totally hosed."
1. The ISP's computer complex. The host process members' requests and keeps track of members' online experience. The "Online Host" is not a staff member, but the computer complex. Also, an ISP staff member who is leading an online activity or is moderator of a message board. Although some staff members of different services are somewhat complex, the human and hardware should never be confused.
2. A computer that allows users to communicate with other host computers on a network.
3. A chat term for someone who is managing a chat. Hosts often act as referees and have the power to turn participants into spectators and vice versa.
An ISP's keyword to the exciting things happening online at present; the current popular area or item.
An Internet search engine with its own flavor of starting page options and unique robot search technology, located on the web at HTTP://WWW.HOTBOT.COM.
A term used in the wireless technology sector of the computer industry, hot spot is a place where you can connect to a public wireless network. The connection may be by one of several methods and may or may not have a charge associated with it, even though it is termed public. See WI-FI, WEP and 802.11 for more wireless information. Also see our WEP - Wireless Encryption Key Calculator and our WI-FI Hot Spot Locator.
The industry name for computer and technology giant, Hewlett Packard. Although perhaps best known for its line of personal and business computer printers, has also long been a leader in mid-range computer systems, including both mini and main frame systems. Founded in 1939 by Stanford University graduates, William R. Hewlett and David Packard, HP is the original garage start-up. In fact, in 1989, the garage where Bill and Dave (as they are still known within the company) first worked manufacturing audio oscillators was declared a California State Historical Landmark and is considered by most in the industry as the birthplace of Silicon Valley. HP's first product was a piece of test equipment in 1938. See more about HP at HTTP://WWW.HP.COM. In the case of printers, some new technology can put you in an awkward position. See details here.
An acronym for High Performance Addressing; a methodology under experimentation in video schemes.
An acronym for High Pass Filter; a telephony term. A signal filter which would be installed in a customer premises ADSL modem (ATU-R), which only allow higher frequency data to be delivered to the modem. See Low-Pass Filter (LPF).
An acronym for High Speed Circuit Switched Data service. Wireless telephone for business and personal use.
An acronym for Heat Sink Fan. This is a combination of a fan blowing air across the fins of a heatsink, usually on a high horsepower microprocessor.
An acronym for High Speed Serial Interface. A particular link originally designed to connect ATM networks to devices such as a T3 interconnect. The original speed was 52mbs but there are several different proprietary speeds for different equipment, all using the HSSI connotation.
Hope This Helps. An example of online shorthand used in chat rooms, E-Mail, and instant messages.
HTML or HTM
Hyper-Text Markup Language, the scripting language of the World Wide Web. Unlike programming languages, HTML does not have the strengths based on structures using variables; it is primarily a display language. A derivative of SGML; there are many dialects that vary from the published standard. These variations are what cause wonderful or weird things to happen in different browsers. The major players in browsers, Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator have taken many liberties that often work in one but not the other. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the body attempting to set the standards for a new generation of the language. See the current HTML default character set. HTML is currently in release 4 of the standards set for it.
Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol, the format of the World Wide Web. When a browser sees "HTTP" at the beginning of an address, it knows that it is viewing a WWW page.
Secured Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol, the format of the World Wide Web. When a browser sees "HTTPS" at the beginning of an address, it knows that it is viewing a secured WWW page.
A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. The term hub and the term concentrator are often used as one. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets. A passive hub serves simply as a conduit for the data, enabling it to go from one device (or segment) to another while an active hub has some degree of amplification and acts as a relay from one segment to another. So-called intelligent hubs include additional features that enables an administrator to monitor the traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub. Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs. Another type of hub, called a switching hub, actually reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port. Hubs can also be contained in routers, switches, network cards and wireless access points (WAPs). See concentrator.
Marketing messages that overstate the truth (as in "Don't believe the hype!"). A common gimmick in the computer business.
A data management program developed for Apple and Macintosh computers. It organizes information into stacks of cards (as seen on the computer screen, not usually printed and made into hard copy). Each card can contain text, graphics, sound, animation, and video. A user can read the cards one at a time like the pages of a book, or follow a thread that jumps from card to card by means of hypertext links. Some designers saw it as an early effort to use an HTML idea and put it into common programming of the time.
A colored section of text (usually blue) that when clicked, will take you to another area of a service or Web Page. (ISP in the following sentence is one.) Most ISPs support hyperlinks in browsers, Instant Messages and E-Mail. They are quite helpful for those not experienced in addresses to route to where they need to be. These are often called just links for short. Links can carry you to a different site, other text on the same site or a specific area of a specific site, directly to specific target of text or graphics.
Text that includes links or shortcuts to other documents, allowing the reader to easily jump from one text to related texts, and consequentially from one idea to another, in a non-linear fashion. Coined by Ted Nelson in 1965. See hypercard.
Hypertext Markup Language - HTML
Hypertext Transfer Protocol - HTTP
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