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Specific Gravity And Viscosity Of Liquids

Specific gravity is the heaviness of a substance compared to that of water, and it is expressed without units. In the metric system specific gravity is the same as in the English system. If something is 7.85 times as heavy as an equal volume of water (such as iron is) its specific gravity is 7.85. Its density is 7.85 grams per cubic centimeter, or 7.85 kilograms per liter, or 7.85 metric tons per cubic meter. In relationship to liquids, the term specific gravity is used to describe the weight or density of a liquid compared to an equal volume of fresh water at 4C (39 F). If the liquid you are comparing will float on this water it has a specific gravity of less than one (1). If it sinks into the fresh water the specific gravity is more than one. As you have already guessed fresh water at 4C (39 F) has been assigned a value of one (1).

It is important that you do not confuse specific gravity with viscosity which is a measurement of a fluids resistance to pouring, though there is often what is perceived to be an obvious relationship. Thick liquids are said to have a high viscosity and thin liquids a low viscosity. Like specific gravity, viscosity can be altered by a change in temperature, but unlike specific gravity it can also be altered by agitation. The really important thing to keep in mind is that there is no correlation between viscosity and specific gravity. We measure specific gravity with a hydrometer. It consist of a glass cylinder with a rubber bulb on top, and a float positioned inside the glass tube. The float is calibrated to float on fresh water so if the fluid you are testing has a higher specific gravity, the float will raise in the liquid and at a lower specific gravity it will sink lower in the liquid. This is the same instrument that we use to tell if your automobile battery is fully charged. Another version will determine the concentration of anti-freeze in an automobile radiator. You can observe the little balls floating in the tube.

In our table below, we have given various liquids' characteristics with the temperature modified to one of more of a real world value. As a rule of thumb, multiply the specific gravity of a liquid by 8.34 to find the weight of a gallon of that liquid.

You may also be interested in the Specific Gravity Of Liquids Table
Specific Gravity Of Metals Table
Specific Gravity Of General Materials Table


Specific Gravity and Viscosity of Liquids

Liquid Boiling
point
at
atm
press
Specific gravity Viscosity
Temp Based
on water
= 1 at 60F
Temp centistokes SSU
F C F C
Automatic
crankcase oils SAE 10W

SAE 10W

SAE 20W

SAE 20

SAE 30

SAE 40

SAE 50

  60 15.6 .88-.94 0 -17.8 1295-max 6M-max
  60 15.6 .88-.94 0 -17.8 1295-2590 6M-12M
  60 15.6 .88-.94 0 -17.8 2590-10350 12M-48M
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 5.7-9.6 45-58
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 9.6-12.9 58-70
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 12.9-16.8 70-85
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 16.8-22.7 85-110
Automotive
gear oils SAE 75W

SAE 80W

SAE 85W

SAE 90W

SAE 140

SAE150

  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 4.2 min 40 min
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 7.0 min 49 min
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 11.0 min 63 min
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 14-25 74-120
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 25-43 120-200
  60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 43 min 200 min
Beer   60 15.6 1.01 68 20 1.8 32(est)
Benzene (Benzol) C6H6   60 0
15.6
0.899
0.885
32
66
0
20
1.00
0.744
31
Bone oil   60 15.6 0.918 130
212
54.4
100
47.5
11.6
220
65
Boric acid, sat. H3BO3   46.4
59
8
15
1.014
1.025
       
Brine see sodium choride and clacium chloride                
Bromine   68
32
20
0
2.9 68 20. 0.34  
Butane-n   60 15.6 0.584 -50
30
-1.1 0.52
0.35
 
Butyric acid n   60 20 0.959 68
32
20
0
1.61
2.3cp
31.6
Calcium chloride 5%

25%

  60 18.3 1.040 65 18.3 1.156  
  60 15.6 1.23 60 15.6 4.0 39
Carbolic acid (phenol)   60 18.3 1.08 65
194
18.3
90
11.83
1.26cp
65
Carbon tetrachoride CCl4 170F
76.7C
68 20 1.594 68
100
20
37.8
0.612
0.53
 
Carbon disulphide CS2 115F
46.2C
32
68
0
20
1.293
1.263
32
68
0
20
0.33
0.298
 
Castor oil   68
104
20
40
0.96
0.95
100
130
37.8
54.4
259-325
98-130
1200-1500
450-600
China wood oil   60 15.6 0.943 69
100
20.6
37.8
308.5
125.5
1425
580
Chloroform 142F
61.2C
68
140
20
60
1.489
1.413
68
140
20
60
0.38
0.35
 
Cocoanut oil   60 15.6 0.925 100
130
37.8
54.4
29.8-31.6
14.7-15.7
140-148
76-80
Cod oil   60 15.6 0.928 100
130
37.8
54.4
32.1
19.4
150
95
Corn oil   60 15.6 0.924 130
212
54.4
100
28.7
8.6
135
54
Corn starch solutions 22 Baume

24 Baume

25 Baume

  60 15.6 1.18 70
100
21.1
37.8
32.1
27.5
150
130
  60 15.6 1.20 70
100
21.1
37.8
129.8
95.2
600
440
  60 15.6 1.21 70
100
21.1
37.8
303
173.2
1400
800
Cotton seed oil   60 15.6 .88-.93 100
130
37.8
54.4
37.9
20.6
176
100
Creosote   60 15.6 1.04-1.10 60
130
15.6
54.4
   
Crude oil 48. API

40 API

35.6 API

32.6 API

Salt Creek

  60
130
15.6
54.4
0.79
0.76
60
130
15.6
54.4
3.8
1.6
39
31.8
  60
130
15.6
54.4
0.825
0.805
60
130
15.6
54.4
9.7
3.5
55.7
38
  60
130
15.6
154
0.847
0.824
60
130
15.6
54.4
17.8
4.9
88.4
42.3
  60
130
15.6
154
0.862
0.84
60
130
15.6
54.4
23.2
7.1
110
46.8
  60
130
15.6
54.4
0.843
0.82
60
130
15.6
54.4
77
6.1
45.6
Decane-n 343F
173C
60 20 0.73 0
100
17.8
37.8
2.36
1.001
34
31
Diethylene glycol   60 15.6 1.12 70 21.1 32 149.7
Diethyl ether 94.4F 68 20 0.714 68 20 0.32  
Diesel fuel oils 20

30

40

60

  60 15.6 .82-1.08 100
130
37.8
54.4
2-6
1.-3.97
32.6-45.5
-39
  60 15.6 .82-1.08 100
130
37.8
54.4
6-11.75
3.97-6.78
45.5-65
39-48
  60 15.6 .82-1.08 100
130
37.8
54.4
29.8 max
13.1 max
140 max
70 max
  60 15.6 .82-1.08 122
160
50
71.1
86.6 max
35.2 max
400 max
165 max

theocetate
COOC2H3

Dowtherm

171F
77.2C
494.3
15
20
25C
15
20
25C
0.907
0.90
1.056
59
68
77
15
20
25
0.4
0.49
 
Ethyl bromide
C2H5Br
101F
77.2C
59 15 1.45 68 20 0.27  
Ethylene bromide 269F
131.7C
68 20 2.18 68 20 0.787  
Ethylene choride 183F
837C
68 20 1.246 68 20 0.668  
Ethylene glycol   60 15.6 1.125 70 21.1 17.8 88.4
Formic acid
10%

50%

80%

Conc.

  68 20 1.025 68 20 1.04 31
  68 20 1.121 68 20 1.2 31.5
  68 20 1.186 68 20 1.4 31.7
  60 15.6 1.221 68
77
20
25
1.48
1.57cp
31.7
Freon
-11

-12

-21

  70 21.1 1.49 70 21.1 0.21  
  70 21.1 1.33 70 21.1 0.27  
  70 21.1 1.37 70 21.1 1.45 31.7
Furfurol 161.7C 68 20 1.159 68
77
20
25
1.45
1.49cp
31.7
Fuel oils
1

2

3

5A

5B

6

  60 15.6 .82-1.08 70
100
21.1
37.8
2.39-4.28
-2.69
34-40
32-35
  60 15.6 .82-1.08 70
100
21.1
37.8
3.0-7.4
2.11-4.28
36-50
33-40
  60 15.6 .82-1.08 70
100
21.1
37.8
2.69-5.84
2.06-3.97
35-45
32.8-39
  60 15.6 .82-1.08 70
100
21.1
37.8
7.4-26.4
4.91-13.7
50-125
42-72
  60 15.6 .82-1.08 70
100
21.1
37.8
26.4-
13.6-67.1
125-
72-310
  60 15.6 .82-1.08 122
160
50
71.1
97.4-660
37.5-172
450-3M
175-780
Gas oils   60 15.6 0.89 70
100
21.1
37.8
13.9
7.4
73
50
Gasolines
a

b

c

  60 15.6 0.74 60
100
15.6
37.8
0.88
0.71
 
  60 15.6 0.72 60
100
15.6
37.8
0.64
 
  60 15.6 0.68
60
100
15.6
37.8
0.46
0.40
 
Glycerine
100%
554F
68
20
1.260
68.6
100
20.3
37.8
648
176
2950
813
50% water   68
20
1.13
68
140
20
60
5.29
1.85cp
43
Glucose   60
15.6
1.35-1.44
100
150
37.8
65.6
7.7M-22M
880-2420
35M-100M
4M-11M
Heptane-n 209.2F
98.4C
60 15.6 0.688 0
100
-17.8
37.8
0.928
0.511
 
Hexane-n 155.7F
68.7C
60 15.6 0.664 0
100
-17.8
37.8
0.683
0.401
 
Honey         100 37.8 73.6 349
Industrial lubricants Turbine oils
685 SSU at 100F

420 SSU

315 SSU

215 SSU

150 SSU

        60
200
15.6
93.3
647
14.5
3000
77
        60
200
15.6
93.3
367
11
1700
63
        60
200
15.6
93.3
259
8
1200
52
        60
200
15.6
93.3
151
7.3
700
48
        60
200
15.6
93.3
99
6
460
45.5
Machine lubricants
#8

#10

#20

#30

      .88-.94 100
130
37.8
54.4
23-34
13-18
112-160
70-90
      .88-.94 100
130
37.8
54.4
34-72
18-25
160-235
90-120
      .88-.94 100
130
37.8
54.4
72-83
25-39
235-385
120-185
      .88-.94 100
130
37.8
54.4
75-119
39-55
350-550
185-255
Cutting oils
#1

#2

        100
130
37.8
54.4
30-40
17-23
140-190
86-110
        100
130
37.8
54.4
40-46
23-26
190-220
110-125
Ink, printers   60 15.6 1.0-1.4 100
130
37.8
54.4
550-2200
238-660
2500-10M
1100-3M
Insulating oil         70
100
21.1
37.8
24.1 max
11.75 max
115 max
65 max
Kerosene   60 15.6 .78-.82 68 20 2.71 35
Jet Fuel (av) 325F 60 15.6 .62-.88 -30. -34.4 7.9 52
Lard   60 15.6 0.96 100
130
37.8
54.4
62.1
34.3
287
160
Lard oil   60 15.6 .91-.93 100
130
37.8
54.4
41-47.5
23.4-27.1
190-220
112-128
Linseed oil   60 15.6 .92-.94 100
130
37.8
54.4
30.5
18.94
143
93
Mercury 675.1F
356.9C
60 15.6 13.57 70
100
21.1
37.8
0.118
0.11
 
Methyl acetate 135F
57.2C
68 20 0.93 68
104
20
40
0.44
0.32cp
 
Methyl iodide 108F
42.6C
68 20 2.28 68
104
20
40
0.213
0.42cp
 
Menhadden oil   60 15.6 0.93 100
130
37.8
54.4
29.8
18.2
140
90
Milk   60 15.6 1.02-1.05 68 20 1.13 31.5
Molasses
A, first

B, second

C, blackstrap

  60 15.6 1.40-1.46 100
130
37.8
54.4
281-5070
151-1760
1300-23500
700-8160
  60 15.6 1.43-1.48 100
130
37.8
54.4
1410-13.2M
660-3.3M
6535-61180
3058-15294
  60 15.6 1.46-1.49 100
130
37.8
54.4
2630-55M
1320-16.5M
12190-255M
6120-76.5M
Naphthalene 424F
218C
68 20 1.145 176
212
80
100
0.9
0.78cp
 
Neatstool oil   60 15.6 0.917 100
130
37.8
54.4
49.7
27.5
230
130
Nitrobenzene 412F
210.9C
68
59
20
15
1.203
1.205
68 20 1.67 31.8
Nonane-n 302F
150.7C
60
68
15.6
20
0.7218
0.718
0
100
-17.8
37.8
1.728
0.807
32
Octane-n 258F
125.6C
60 15.6 0.7069 0
100
-17.8
37.8
1.266
0.645
31.7
Olive oil 570F
300C
60 15.6 .91-.92 100
130
37.8
54.4
43.2
24.1
200
Palms oil   60 15.6 0.924 100
130
37.8
54.4
47.8
26.4
 
Peanut oil   60 15.6 0.92 100
130
37.8
54.4
42
23.4
200
Pentane-n   60 0
15.6
0.650
0.631
0
80
17.8
26.7
0.508
0.342
 
Petrolatum   60 15.6 0.83 130
160
54.4
71.1
20.5
15
100
77
Petroleum ether   60 15.6 0.64 60 15.6 31(est) 1.1
Propionic acid   68 20 0.99 32
68
0
20
1.52cp
1.13
31.5
Propylene glycol   68 20 1.038 70 21.1 52 241
Quenching oil
(typical)
  60 15.6 .86-.89     100-120 20.5-25
Rapeseed oil   68 20 0.92 100
130
37.8
54.4
54.1
31
250
145
Rosin oil   60 15.6 0.98 100
130
37.8
54.4
324.7
129.9
1500
600
Rosin (wood)   60 15.6 1.09 avg 100
200
37.8
93.3
216-11M
108-4400
1M-50M
500-20M
Sesame seed oil   60 15.6 0.923 100
130
37.8
54.4
39.6
23
184
110
Sodium chloride
5%

25%
  39 3.9 1.037 68 20 1.097 31.1
  39
60
3.9
15.6
1.196
1.19
60 15.6 2.4 34
Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
20%

30%

40%

  60 15.6 1.22 65 18.3 4.0 39.4
  60 15.6 1.33 65 18.3 10.0 58.1
  60 15.6 1.43 65 18.3   110.1
Soya bean oil   60 15.6 .924-.928 100
130
37.8
5.4
35.4
19.64
165
96
Sperm oil   60 15.6 1.35-1.44 100
130
37.5
54.4
21-23
15.2
110
78
Sugar solutions
Corn syrup
86.4 Brix

84.4 Brix

82.3 Brix

80.3 Brix

78.4 Brix

  60 15.6 1.459 100
180
37.8
82.2
180Mcp
1750cp
 
  60 15.6 1.445 100
180
37.8
82.2
48Mcp
800cp
 
  60 15.6 1.431 100
180
37.8
82.2
17Mcp
380cp
 
  60 15.6 1.418 100
180
37.8
82.2
6900cp
230cp
 
  60 15.6 1.405 100
180
37.8
82.2
3200cp
160cp
 
Sugar solutions
Sucrose 60 Brix

64 Brix

68 Brix

72 Brix

74 Brix

76 Brix

  60 15.6 1.29 70
100
37.8
82.2
49.7
18.7
230
92
  60 15.6 1.31 70
100
21.1
37.8
95.2
31.6
440
148
  60 15.6 1.338 70
100
21.1
37.8
216.4
59.5
1000
275
  60 15.6 1.36 70
100
21.1
37.8
595
138.6
2700
640
  60 15.6 1.376 70
100
21.1
37.8
1210
238
5500
1100
  60 15.6 1.39 70
100
21.1
37.8
2200
440
10000
2000
Sulphuric acid
100%

444.6C

68 20 1.839 68
140
20
60
14.56
7.2cp
76
95%   68 20 1.839 68 20 14.5 75
60%   68 20 1.50 68 20 4.4 41
20%
  68 20 1.14       3M-8M
650-1400
Tar, coke oven
  60 15.6 1.12+ 70
100
21.1
37.8
600-1760
141-308
15M-300M
2M-20M
Tar, gas house
  60 15.6 1.16-1.30 70
100
21.1
37.8
3300-66M
440-4400
2500
500
Tar, pine
  60 15.6 1.06+ 100
132
37.8
55.6
559
108.2
200-300
55-60
Tar, road-RT-2

RT-4

RT-6

RT-8

RT-10

RT-12

  60 15.6 1.07+ 122
212
50
100
43.2-64.9
8.8-10.2
400-700
65-70
  60 15.6 1.08+ 122
212
50
100
86.6-154
11.6-14.3
1M-2M
85-125
  60 15.6 1.09+ 122
212
50
100
216-440
16.8-26.2
3M-8M
150-225
  60 15.6 1.13+ 122
212
50
100
660-1760
31.8-48.3
20M-60M
250-400
  60 156 1.14+ 122
212
50
100
4.4M-13.2M
53.7-86.6
114M-458M
500-800
  60 15.6 1.15+ 122
212
50
100
25M-75M
108-173
 
Toluene

231F
110.6C

68 20 0.866 68
140
20
60
0.68
0.38cp
185.7
Triethylene glycol
  68 20 1.125 70 21.1 40 400-440
185-205
Turpentine

320F

60 15.6 .86-.87 100
130
37.8
54.4
86.5-95.2
39.9-44.3
1425
650
Varnish, spar
  60 15.6 0.9 68
100
20
37.8
313
143
 
Water, distilled   60 15.6 1.00 68 20 1.0038 31
Water, fresh
  60 15.6 1.0 60
130
15.6
54.4
1.13
0.55
31.5
Water, sea   60 15.6 1.03     1.15 31.5
Whale oil
  60 15.6 0.925 100
130
37.8
54.4
35-39.6
19.9-23.4
163-184
97-112
Xylene-o
287F
142.7C
68 20 0.87 68
104
20
40
0.93
0.623cp
 
Updated: 6/7/11
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