# Specific Gravity And Viscosity Of Liquids

Specific gravity is the heaviness of a substance compared to that of water, and it is expressed without units. In the metric system specific gravity is the same as in the English system. If something is 7.85 times as heavy as an equal volume of water (such as iron is) its specific gravity is 7.85. Its density is 7.85 grams per cubic centimeter, or 7.85 kilograms per liter, or 7.85 metric tons per cubic meter. In relationship to liquids, the term specific gravity is used to describe the weight or density of a liquid compared to an equal volume of fresh water at 4°C (39° F). If the liquid you are comparing will float on this water it has a specific gravity of less than one (1). If it sinks into the fresh water the specific gravity is more than one. As you have already guessed fresh water at 4°C (39° F) has been assigned a value of one (1).

It is important that you do not confuse specific gravity with viscosity which is a measurement of a fluids resistance to pouring, though there is often what is perceived to be an obvious relationship. Thick liquids are said to have a high viscosity and thin liquids a low viscosity. Like specific gravity, viscosity can be altered by a change in temperature, but unlike specific gravity it can also be altered by agitation. The really important thing to keep in mind is that there is no correlation between viscosity and specific gravity. We measure specific gravity with a hydrometer. It consist of a glass cylinder with a rubber bulb on top, and a float positioned inside the glass tube. The float is calibrated to float on fresh water so if the fluid you are testing has a higher specific gravity, the float will raise in the liquid and at a lower specific gravity it will sink lower in the liquid. This is the same instrument that we use to tell if your automobile battery is fully charged. Another version will determine the concentration of anti-freeze in an automobile radiator. You can observe the little balls floating in the tube.

In our table below, we have given various liquids' characteristics with the temperature modified to one of more of a real world value. As a rule of thumb, multiply the specific gravity of a liquid by 8.34 to find the weight of a gallon of that liquid.

You may also be interested in the Specific Gravity Of Liquids Table
Specific Gravity Of Metals Table
Specific Gravity Of General Materials Table

 Specific Gravity and Viscosity of Liquids Liquid Boiling point at atm press Specific gravity Viscosity Temp Based on water = 1 at 60ºF Temp centistokes SSU ºF ºC ºF ºC Automatic crankcase oils SAE 10WSAE 10W SAE 20W SAE 20 SAE 30 SAE 40 SAE 50 60 15.6 .88-.94 0 -17.8 1295-max 6M-max 60 15.6 .88-.94 0 -17.8 1295-2590 6M-12M 60 15.6 .88-.94 0 -17.8 2590-10350 12M-48M 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 5.7-9.6 45-58 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 9.6-12.9 58-70 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 12.9-16.8 70-85 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 16.8-22.7 85-110 Automotive gear oils SAE 75WSAE 80W SAE 85W SAE 90W SAE 140 SAE150 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 4.2 min 40 min 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 7.0 min 49 min 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 11.0 min 63 min 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 14-25 74-120 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 25-43 120-200 60 15.6 .88-.94 210 98.9 43 min 200 min Beer 60 15.6 1.01 68 20 1.8 32(est) Benzene (Benzol) C6H6 60 0 15.6 0.899 0.885 32 66 0 20 1.00 0.744 31 Bone oil 60 15.6 0.918 130 212 54.4 100 47.5 11.6 220 65 Boric acid, sat. H3BO3 46.4 59 8 15 1.014 1.025 Brine see sodium choride and clacium chloride Bromine 68 32 20 0 2.9 68 20. 0.34 Butane-n 60 15.6 0.584 -50 30 -1.1 0.52 0.35 Butyric acid n 60 20 0.959 68 32 20 0 1.61 2.3cp 31.6 Calcium chloride 5%25% 60 18.3 1.040 65 18.3 1.156 60 15.6 1.23 60 15.6 4.0 39 Carbolic acid (phenol) 60 18.3 1.08 65 194 18.3 90 11.83 1.26cp 65 Carbon tetrachoride CCl4 170ºF 76.7ºC 68 20 1.594 68 100 20 37.8 0.612 0.53 Carbon disulphide CS2 115ºF 46.2ºC 32 68 0 20 1.293 1.263 32 68 0 20 0.33 0.298 Castor oil 68 104 20 40 0.96 0.95 100 130 37.8 54.4 259-325 98-130 1200-1500 450-600 China wood oil 60 15.6 0.943 69 100 20.6 37.8 308.5 125.5 1425 580 Chloroform 142ºF 61.2ºC 68 140 20 60 1.489 1.413 68 140 20 60 0.38 0.35 Cocoanut oil 60 15.6 0.925 100 130 37.8 54.4 29.8-31.6 14.7-15.7 140-148 76-80 Cod oil 60 15.6 0.928 100 130 37.8 54.4 32.1 19.4 150 95 Corn oil 60 15.6 0.924 130 212 54.4 100 28.7 8.6 135 54 Corn starch solutions 22 Baume 24 Baume 25 Baume 60 15.6 1.18 70 100 21.1 37.8 32.1 27.5 150 130 60 15.6 1.20 70 100 21.1 37.8 129.8 95.2 600 440 60 15.6 1.21 70 100 21.1 37.8 303 173.2 1400 800 Cotton seed oil 60 15.6 .88-.93 100 130 37.8 54.4 37.9 20.6 176 100 Creosote 60 15.6 1.04-1.10 60 130 15.6 54.4 Crude oil 48º. API40º API 35.6 API 32.6 API Salt Creek 60 130 15.6 54.4 0.79 0.76 60 130 15.6 54.4 3.8 1.6 39 31.8 60 130 15.6 54.4 0.825 0.805 60 130 15.6 54.4 9.7 3.5 55.7 38 60 130 15.6 154 0.847 0.824 60 130 15.6 54.4 17.8 4.9 88.4 42.3 60 130 15.6 154 0.862 0.84 60 130 15.6 54.4 23.2 7.1 110 46.8 60 130 15.6 54.4 0.843 0.82 60 130 15.6 54.4 77 6.1 45.6 Decane-n 343ºF 173ºC 60 20 0.73 0 100 17.8 37.8 2.36 1.001 34 31 Diethylene glycol 60 15.6 1.12 70 21.1 32 149.7 Diethyl ether 94.4ºF 68 20 0.714 68 20 0.32 Diesel fuel oils 2030 40 60 60 15.6 .82-1.08 100 130 37.8 54.4 2-6 1.-3.97 32.6-45.5 -39 60 15.6 .82-1.08 100 130 37.8 54.4 6-11.75 3.97-6.78 45.5-65 39-48 60 15.6 .82-1.08 100 130 37.8 54.4 29.8 max 13.1 max 140 max 70 max 60 15.6 .82-1.08 122 160 50 71.1 86.6 max 35.2 max 400 max 165 max theocetate COOC2H3 Dowtherm 171ºF 77.2ºC 494.3º 15 20 25ºC 15 20 25ºC 0.907 0.90 1.056 59 68 77 15 20 25 0.4 0.49 Ethyl bromide C2H5Br 101ºF 77.2ºC 59 15 1.45 68 20 0.27 Ethylene bromide 269ºF 131.7ºC 68 20 2.18 68 20 0.787 Ethylene choride 183ºF 837ºC 68 20 1.246 68 20 0.668 Ethylene glycol 60 15.6 1.125 70 21.1 17.8 88.4 Formic acid 10%50% 80% Conc. 68 20 1.025 68 20 1.04 31 68 20 1.121 68 20 1.2 31.5 68 20 1.186 68 20 1.4 31.7 60 15.6 1.221 68 77 20 25 1.48 1.57cp 31.7 Freon -11-12 -21 70 21.1 1.49 70 21.1 0.21 70 21.1 1.33 70 21.1 0.27 70 21.1 1.37 70 21.1 1.45 31.7 Furfurol 161.7ºC 68 20 1.159 68 77 20 25 1.45 1.49cp 31.7 Fuel oils 12 3 5A 5B 6 60 15.6 .82-1.08 70 100 21.1 37.8 2.39-4.28 -2.69 34-40 32-35 60 15.6 .82-1.08 70 100 21.1 37.8 3.0-7.4 2.11-4.28 36-50 33-40 60 15.6 .82-1.08 70 100 21.1 37.8 2.69-5.84 2.06-3.97 35-45 32.8-39 60 15.6 .82-1.08 70 100 21.1 37.8 7.4-26.4 4.91-13.7 50-125 42-72 60 15.6 .82-1.08 70 100 21.1 37.8 26.4- 13.6-67.1 125- 72-310 60 15.6 .82-1.08 122 160 50 71.1 97.4-660 37.5-172 450-3M 175-780 Gas oils 60 15.6 0.89 70 100 21.1 37.8 13.9 7.4 73 50 Gasolines ab c 60 15.6 0.74 60 100 15.6 37.8 0.88 0.71 60 15.6 0.72 60 100 15.6 37.8 0.64 60 15.6 0.68 60 100 15.6 37.8 0.46 0.40 Glycerine 100% 554ºF 68 20 1.260 68.6 100 20.3 37.8 648 176 2950 813 50% water 68 20 1.13 68 140 20 60 5.29 1.85cp 43 Glucose 60 15.6 1.35-1.44 100 150 37.8 65.6 7.7M-22M 880-2420 35M-100M 4M-11M Heptane-n 209.2ºF 98.4ºC 60 15.6 0.688 0 100 -17.8 37.8 0.928 0.511 Hexane-n 155.7ºF 68.7ºC 60 15.6 0.664 0 100 -17.8 37.8 0.683 0.401 Honey 100 37.8 73.6 349 Industrial lubricants Turbine oils 685 SSU at 100ºF420 SSU 315 SSU 215 SSU 150 SSU 60 200 15.6 93.3 647 14.5 3000 77 60 200 15.6 93.3 367 11 1700 63 60 200 15.6 93.3 259 8 1200 52 60 200 15.6 93.3 151 7.3 700 48 60 200 15.6 93.3 99 6 460 45.5 Machine lubricants #8#10 #20 #30 .88-.94 100 130 37.8 54.4 23-34 13-18 112-160 70-90 .88-.94 100 130 37.8 54.4 34-72 18-25 160-235 90-120 .88-.94 100 130 37.8 54.4 72-83 25-39 235-385 120-185 .88-.94 100 130 37.8 54.4 75-119 39-55 350-550 185-255 Cutting oils #1#2 100 130 37.8 54.4 30-40 17-23 140-190 86-110 100 130 37.8 54.4 40-46 23-26 190-220 110-125 Ink, printers 60 15.6 1.0-1.4 100 130 37.8 54.4 550-2200 238-660 2500-10M 1100-3M Insulating oil 70 100 21.1 37.8 24.1 max 11.75 max 115 max 65 max Kerosene 60 15.6 .78-.82 68 20 2.71 35 Jet Fuel (av) 325ºF 60 15.6 .62-.88 -30. -34.4 7.9 52 Lard 60 15.6 0.96 100 130 37.8 54.4 62.1 34.3 287 160 Lard oil 60 15.6 .91-.93 100 130 37.8 54.4 41-47.5 23.4-27.1 190-220 112-128 Linseed oil 60 15.6 .92-.94 100 130 37.8 54.4 30.5 18.94 143 93 Mercury 675.1ºF 356.9ºC 60 15.6 13.57 70 100 21.1 37.8 0.118 0.11 Methyl acetate 135ºF 57.2ºC 68 20 0.93 68 104 20 40 0.44 0.32cp Methyl iodide 108ºF 42.6ºC 68 20 2.28 68 104 20 40 0.213 0.42cp Menhadden oil 60 15.6 0.93 100 130 37.8 54.4 29.8 18.2 140 90 Milk 60 15.6 1.02-1.05 68 20 1.13 31.5 Molasses A, firstB, second C, blackstrap 60 15.6 1.40-1.46 100 130 37.8 54.4 281-5070 151-1760 1300-23500 700-8160 60 15.6 1.43-1.48 100 130 37.8 54.4 1410-13.2M 660-3.3M 6535-61180 3058-15294 60 15.6 1.46-1.49 100 130 37.8 54.4 2630-55M 1320-16.5M 12190-255M 6120-76.5M Naphthalene 424ºF 218ºC 68 20 1.145 176 212 80 100 0.9 0.78cp Neatstool oil 60 15.6 0.917 100 130 37.8 54.4 49.7 27.5 230 130 Nitrobenzene 412ºF 210.9ºC 68 59 20 15 1.203 1.205 68 20 1.67 31.8 Nonane-n 302ºF 150.7ºC 60 68 15.6 20 0.7218 0.718 0 100 -17.8 37.8 1.728 0.807 32 Octane-n 258ºF 125.6ºC 60 15.6 0.7069 0 100 -17.8 37.8 1.266 0.645 31.7 Olive oil 570ºF 300ºC 60 15.6 .91-.92 100 130 37.8 54.4 43.2 24.1 200 Palms oil 60 15.6 0.924 100 130 37.8 54.4 47.8 26.4 Peanut oil 60 15.6 0.92 100 130 37.8 54.4 42 23.4 200 Pentane-n 60 0 15.6 0.650 0.631 0 80 17.8 26.7 0.508 0.342 Petrolatum 60 15.6 0.83 130 160 54.4 71.1 20.5 15 100 77 Petroleum ether 60 15.6 0.64 60 15.6 31(est) 1.1 Propionic acid 68 20 0.99 32 68 0 20 1.52cp 1.13 31.5 Propylene glycol 68 20 1.038 70 21.1 52 241 Quenching oil (typical) 60 15.6 .86-.89 100-120 20.5-25 Rapeseed oil 68 20 0.92 100 130 37.8 54.4 54.1 31 250 145 Rosin oil 60 15.6 0.98 100 130 37.8 54.4 324.7 129.9 1500 600 Rosin (wood) 60 15.6 1.09 avg 100 200 37.8 93.3 216-11M 108-4400 1M-50M 500-20M Sesame seed oil 60 15.6 0.923 100 130 37.8 54.4 39.6 23 184 110 Sodium chloride 5% 25% 39 3.9 1.037 68 20 1.097 31.1 39 60 3.9 15.6 1.196 1.19 60 15.6 2.4 34 Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) 20%30% 40% 60 15.6 1.22 65 18.3 4.0 39.4 60 15.6 1.33 65 18.3 10.0 58.1 60 15.6 1.43 65 18.3 110.1 Soya bean oil 60 15.6 .924-.928 100 130 37.8 5.4 35.4 19.64 165 96 Sperm oil 60 15.6 1.35-1.44 100 130 37.5 54.4 21-23 15.2 110 78 Sugar solutions Corn syrup 86.4 Brix 84.4 Brix82.3 Brix 80.3 Brix 78.4 Brix 60 15.6 1.459 100 180 37.8 82.2 180Mcp 1750cp 60 15.6 1.445 100 180 37.8 82.2 48Mcp 800cp 60 15.6 1.431 100 180 37.8 82.2 17Mcp 380cp 60 15.6 1.418 100 180 37.8 82.2 6900cp 230cp 60 15.6 1.405 100 180 37.8 82.2 3200cp 160cp Sugar solutions Sucrose 60 Brix64 Brix 68 Brix 72 Brix 74 Brix 76 Brix 60 15.6 1.29 70 100 37.8 82.2 49.7 18.7 230 92 60 15.6 1.31 70 100 21.1 37.8 95.2 31.6 440 148 60 15.6 1.338 70 100 21.1 37.8 216.4 59.5 1000 275 60 15.6 1.36 70 100 21.1 37.8 595 138.6 2700 640 60 15.6 1.376 70 100 21.1 37.8 1210 238 5500 1100 60 15.6 1.39 70 100 21.1 37.8 2200 440 10000 2000 Sulphuric acid 100% 444.6ºC 68 20 1.839 68 140 20 60 14.56 7.2cp 76 95% 68 20 1.839 68 20 14.5 75 60% 68 20 1.50 68 20 4.4 41 20% 68 20 1.14 3M-8M 650-1400 Tar, coke oven 60 15.6 1.12+ 70 100 21.1 37.8 600-1760 141-308 15M-300M 2M-20M Tar, gas house 60 15.6 1.16-1.30 70 100 21.1 37.8 3300-66M 440-4400 2500 500 Tar, pine 60 15.6 1.06+ 100 132 37.8 55.6 559 108.2 200-300 55-60 Tar, road-RT-2RT-4 RT-6 RT-8 RT-10 RT-12 60 15.6 1.07+ 122 212 50 100 43.2-64.9 8.8-10.2 400-700 65-70 60 15.6 1.08+ 122 212 50 100 86.6-154 11.6-14.3 1M-2M 85-125 60 15.6 1.09+ 122 212 50 100 216-440 16.8-26.2 3M-8M 150-225 60 15.6 1.13+ 122 212 50 100 660-1760 31.8-48.3 20M-60M 250-400 60 156 1.14+ 122 212 50 100 4.4M-13.2M 53.7-86.6 114M-458M 500-800 60 15.6 1.15+ 122 212 50 100 25M-75M 108-173 Toluene 231ºF 110.6ºC 68 20 0.866 68 140 20 60 0.68 0.38cp 185.7 Triethylene glycol 68 20 1.125 70 21.1 40 400-440 185-205 Turpentine 320ºF 60 15.6 .86-.87 100 130 37.8 54.4 86.5-95.2 39.9-44.3 1425 650 Varnish, spar 60 15.6 0.9 68 100 20 37.8 313 143 Water, distilled 60 15.6 1.00 68 20 1.0038 31 Water, fresh 60 15.6 1.0 60 130 15.6 54.4 1.13 0.55 31.5 Water, sea 60 15.6 1.03 1.15 31.5 Whale oil 60 15.6 0.925 100 130 37.8 54.4 35-39.6 19.9-23.4 163-184 97-112 Xylene-o 287ºF 142.7ºC 68 20 0.87 68 104 20 40 0.93 0.623cp
Updated: 6/7/11
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