
Baseball Pitching

Adjusted Pitching Runs [APR or PR/A] 
An advanced pitching statistic used to measure the number of runs a pitcher prevents from scoring compared to the league's average pitcher in a neutral park in the same amount of innings. This is similar to the ERA+ statistic listed below and acts as a quantitative counterpart. 
Earned Run Average [ERA] 
One of the oldest pitching statistics that is the most commonly used and understood in the Major Leagues today. Virtually every fan knows what it means but many often forget the formula used to compute the pitchers ERA. It originally appeared in the early 1900's and when calculating, remember not to add those runs which scored unearned. An earned run is any run for which the pitcher is held accountable. In other words, the run did not score as a result of a fielding error, interference, obstruction or a passed ball. If a run is not earned, it is an unearned run. Even if a runner scores on a fielding error by the pitcher himself, it is an unearned run. 
Earned Run Average Plus [ERA+ or RA] 
This statistic uses a league normalized earned run average in the calculation and is meant to measure how well the pitcher prevented runs from scoring relative to the rest of the league. It is a similar to the hitter's PRO statistic and when calculated the decimal is also dropped here. 
Game Score 
An advanced pitching statistic developed by Bill James used to measure how dominant a pitcher performed in each game he pitched. Often referred to as "Ryanicity" since Nolan Ryan and his multiple nohitters were amongst the best Game Scores ever recorded until Kerry Wood threw his twenty strikeout game in 1998. The strikeouts in that game combined with the lack of hits (1) made it better than a perfect game as the statistics rewards dominance (strikes) and lack of hits while penalizing for walks. 
Opposing Team's Batting Average 
Another common statistic in baseball and also quite easy to understand and easy to compute. The primary purpose for this measurement is to gauge the opposing team's batting average when facing this particular pitcher in the game currently being pitched. 
Walks And Hits per Innings Pitched [WHIP] 
An extremely popular statistic that is primarily used and discussed with the Fantasy Leagues and Rotisserie Leagues. Developed to measure the approximate numbers of walks and hits a pitcher allows in each inning he pitches then compares the value received to other pitchers to formulate a pitcher's index. 
Winning Percentage 
Another common statistic in baseball and also quite easy to understand and easy to compute. The primary purpose for this measurement is to gauge the percentage of a pitcher's games that are won. 
Pitching Definitions : A Hold 
This pitching term was coined by a group of sports writers from USA Today (with an affinity for statistics) and awards a relief pitcher who preserves the lead by not allowing any runs (earned or unearned) and passes the game on to another pitcher for a fully qualified save opportunity. It is becoming more mainstream but is not recognized by all of baseball. 
Pitching Definitions : A Save 
A pitcher can earn a save by completing ALL three of the following items:

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