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Baseball Pitching
Stats Formulae

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The explanations and formulae below are for various calculations of statistics for baseball pitching. Some are obscure... See our Baseball Pitching Stats Calculator to make some calculations of your own.

Adjusted Pitching Runs [APR or PR/A]

(Innings Pitched divided by 9) x (League ERA - ERA)

An advanced pitching statistic used to measure the number of runs a pitcher prevents from scoring compared to the league's average pitcher in a neutral park in the same amount of innings. This is similar to the ERA+ statistic listed below and acts as a quantitative counterpart.

Earned Run Average [ERA]

(Number of Earned Runs x 9) divided by (Number of Innings Pitched)

One of the oldest pitching statistics that is the most commonly used and understood in the Major Leagues today. Virtually every fan knows what it means but many often forget the formula used to compute the pitchers ERA. It originally appeared in the early 1900's and when calculating, remember not to add those runs which scored unearned. An earned run is any run for which the pitcher is held accountable. In other words, the run did not score as a result of a fielding error, interference, obstruction or a passed ball. If a run is not earned, it is an unearned run. Even if a runner scores on a fielding error by the pitcher himself, it is an unearned run.

Earned Run Average Plus [ERA+ or RA]

League ERA (divided by) ERA

This statistic uses a league normalized earned run average in the calculation and is meant to measure how well the pitcher prevented runs from scoring relative to the rest of the league. It is a similar to the hitter's PRO statistic and when calculated the decimal is also dropped here.

Game Score

Start with 50 points. Add 1 point for each out recorded, (3 points per inning). Add 2 points for each inning completed after the 4th. Add 1 point for each strikeout. Subtract 2 points for each hit allowed. Subtract 4 points for each earned run allowed. Subtract 2 points for each unearned run allowed. Subtract 1 point for each walk.

An advanced pitching statistic developed by Bill James used to measure how dominant a pitcher performed in each game he pitched. Often referred to as "Ryanicity" since Nolan Ryan and his multiple no-hitters were amongst the best Game Scores ever recorded until Kerry Wood threw his twenty strikeout game in 1998. The strikeouts in that game combined with the lack of hits (1) made it better than a perfect game as the statistics rewards dominance (strikes) and lack of hits while penalizing for walks.

Opposing Team's Batting Average

Number Of Allowed Hits (divided by) (Batters Faced - Walks - Hit Batsmen - Sacrifice Hits - Sacrifice Flies - Catcher's Interference)

Another common statistic in baseball and also quite easy to understand and easy to compute. The primary purpose for this measurement is to gauge the opposing team's batting average when facing this particular pitcher in the game currently being pitched.

Walks And Hits per Innings Pitched [WHIP]

(Hits + Walks) divided by Innings Pitched

An extremely popular statistic that is primarily used and discussed with the Fantasy Leagues and Rotisserie Leagues. Developed to measure the approximate numbers of walks and hits a pitcher allows in each inning he pitches then compares the value received to other pitchers to formulate a pitcher's index.

Winning Percentage

Number of Wins (divided by) Number of Decisions

Another common statistic in baseball and also quite easy to understand and easy to compute. The primary purpose for this measurement is to gauge the percentage of a pitcher's games that are won.

Pitching Definitions : A Hold
This pitching term was coined by a group of sports writers from USA Today (with an affinity for statistics) and awards a relief pitcher who preserves the lead by not allowing any runs (earned or unearned) and passes the game on to another pitcher for a fully qualified save opportunity. It is becoming more mainstream but is not recognized by all of baseball.
Pitching Definitions : A Save

A pitcher can earn a save by completing ALL three of the following items:

  1. Finishes the game won by his team.
  2. Does not receive the win.
  3. Meets one of the following three items:
    1. Enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and pitches at least one inning.
    2. Enters the game with the tying run either on base, at bat, or on deck.
    3. Pitches effectively for at least three innings.

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