A tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, and often (but not always) visible as a funnel cloud." Literally, in order for a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with the ground and the cloud base. Weather scientists haven't found it so simple in practice, however, to classify and define tornadoes. For example, the difference is unclear between an strong mesocyclone (parent thunderstorm circulation) on the ground, and a large, weak tornado. Wind speeds in tornadoes range from values below that of hurricane speeds to more than 300 miles per hour! Differing from hurricanes that produce wind speeds of similar values over relatively widespread areas, the maximum winds in tornadoes are often confined to extremely small areas, and vary tremendously over very short distances, even within the funnel itself. The tales of complete destruction of one house in the middle of many that are totally undamaged are true and well documented.
In 1971, Dr. T. Theodore Fujita of the University of Chicago devised a six-category scale to classify U.S. tornadoes into six intensity categories, named F0-F5. These categories are based upon the estimated maximum winds occurring within the funnel. The Fujita Tornado Scale, more commonly called the "F Scale", has subsequently become the accepted and recognized scale for estimating wind speeds within tornadoes based upon the damage done to buildings and structures. It is used extensively by the National Weather Service in investigating tornadoes, and by engineers in correlating damage to building structures and techniques with different wind speeds caused by tornadoes. All tornadoes are now assigned an F scale when defined by meteorologists.
The F Scale bridges the gap between the Beaufort Wind Speed Scale and Mach numbers (ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound) by connecting Beaufort Force 12 with Mach 1 in twelve steps. The equation relating the wind velocities (V in mph) with the F scale (F) is V = 14.1 * ((F+2) to the 1.5 power).
F1 on the F Scale is equal to B12 (73 mph) on the Beaufort scale, which is the minimum windspeed required to upgrade a tropical storm to a hurricane. F12 on the F Scale is equal to M1 (738 mph) on the Mach numbers. Though the F Scale itself ranges up to F12, the strongest tornadoes max out in the F5 range (261 to 318 mph).
Wind Speed MPH
Air Temperature (Degrees Fahrenheit)
Maximum Wind Speeds
F0 Category Tornado
40-72 mph (35-62 kt)
Gale Tornado. Light Damage: Some damage to chimneys; breaks twigs and branches off trees; pushes over shallow-rooted trees; damages signboards; some windows broken; hurricane wind speed begins at 73 mph.
F1 Category Tornado
73-112 mph (63-97 kt)
Moderate Tornado. Moderate damage: Peels surfaces off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned; outbuildings demolished; moving autos pushed off the roads; trees snapped or broken.
F2 Category Tornado
113-157 mph (98-136 kt)
Significant Tornado. Considerable damage: Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile homes demolished; frame houses with weak foundations lifted and moved; boxcars pushed over; large trees snapped or uprooted; light-object missiles generated.
F3 Category Tornado
158-206 mph (137-179 kt)
Severe Tornado. Severe damage: Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in forests uprooted; heavy cars lifted off the ground and thrown; weak pavement blown off roads.
F4 Category Tornado
207-260 mph (180-226 kt)
Devastating Tornado. Devastating damage: Well constructed homes leveled; structures with weak foundations blown off some distance; cars thrown and disintegrated; large missiles generated; trees in forest uprooted and carried some distance away.
F5 Category Tornado
261-318 mph (227-276 kt)
Incredible Tornado. Incredible damage: Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distance to disintegrate; automobile-sized missiles fly through the air in excess of 300 ft (100 m); trees debarked; incredible phenomena will occur.
F6-F12 Category Tornadoes
Gtr than 319 mph (277 kt)
The maximum wind speeds of tornadoes are not expected to reach the F6 wind speeds.